康德哲學研究 (Christian Faith and Philosophy and Kant)
陳佐人博士 (Dr. Stephen Chan)
Kant’s Web Page: www.hkbu.edu.hk/~ppp/Kant.html
講題大綱 (Course Outline)︰
1. 康德哲學導論 (Introduction to Kant’s Philosophy)
2. 純粹理性之批判 (Critique of Pure Reason)
3. 實踐理性之批判 (Critique of Practical Reason)
4. 判斷力之批判 (Critique of Judgment): Beauty according to Kant:
5. 《單粹理性限度內的宗教》(Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone)
6. 本體論 (Ontological Argument)
康德之歷史年代 (Chronology of Kant)
1632 John Locke born
1685 George Berkeley born
1694 Voltaire born
1704 John Locke died
1711 David Hume born
1724 IMMANUEL KANT BORN
1753 George Berkeley died
1762 Rousseau Emile
1770 G.W. Hegel born (1831 died)
1776 David Hume died
1778 Voltaire died
1781 CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON
1788 CRITIQUE OF PRACTICAL REASON
1790 CRITIQUE OF JUDGMENT
1793 RELIGION WITHIN THE LIMIT OF RELIGION
1795 PERPETUAL PEACE
1804 IMMANUEL KANT DIED
洛克 - John Locke (1632-1704)
Human mind as tabula rasa - blank slate or sheet of paper.
There are no innate ideas.
All human knowledges are from experience.
Primary, secondary, and tertiary qualities. (1632-1704)
柏克萊 - George Berkeley (1685-1753)
To be is to be perceived.
Physical things are complexes of ideas.
No idea or sensation exists outside the mind.
休謨 - David Hume (1711-1776)
Ideas and Impressions.
Simple and Complex ideas.
To imagine is to associate: resemblance, contiguity and causation.
Abstract ideas are made by customary conjunction.
Causation and Identity are impressions of the mind.
康德 - Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Der bestirnte Himmel uber mir, und das moralische Gesetz in mir.
All the interests of my reason, speculative as well as practical, combine in the following questions:
1. What can I know?
2. What ought I to do?
3. What may I hope?
[4. What is man?] [A805=B833]
“Now the proper problem of pure reason is contained in the question: How are a priori synthetic judgments possible?” [B19]
“Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concept are blind.” [A51=B75]
純粹理性之批判 - Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1st ed., 1781; 2nd ed., 1787)
"I term all representations pure (in the transcendental sense) in which there is nothing that belongs to sensation." [A20=B34]
Critique [Kritik]: 批判 ≠ 批評≠ 否定 = 評審, 評鑑
Critique ≠Criticism ≠ dispute, dissent, disprove = limit, legitimate, and legislate.
“I do not mean by this a CRITIQUE of books and systems, but of the faculty of reason in general, in respect of all knowledge after which it may strive independently of all experience. It will therefore decide as to the possibility or impossibility of metaphysics in general, and determine its sources, its extent, and its limits - all in accordance with principles.” [Axii]
我之所謂批判非指批判書籍及體系而言, 乃指就理性離一切經驗所努力尋求之一切知識, 以批判普泛所謂理性之能力而言。[Axii, 藍: 3]
“The greatest and perhaps the sole use of all philosophy of pure reason is therefore only negative; since it serves not as an organon for the extension but as a discipline for the limitation of pure reason, and, instead of discovering truth, has only the modest merit of guarding against error.” [A795=B823]
“Critique in the Kantian sense of the term as a reflection on the conditions and limits of something's validity.” Paul Ricoeur (呂科爾), Conflicts of Interpretation, p.100.
I. TRANSCENDENTAL DOCTRINE OF ELEMENTS [Elementology]
先驗原理論 [藍], 超越的成素論 [牟]
First Part: Transcendental Aesthetic
先驗感性論 [藍], 超越的攝物學 [牟]
Second Part: Transcendental Logic
先驗邏輯論 [藍], 超越的辨物學 [牟]
First Division: Transcendental Analytic
先驗分析論 [藍], 超越的分解 [牟]
Book 1: Analytic of Concepts
Ch.1: The Clue to the Discovery of all Pure Concepts of the Understanding
Ch.2: The Deduction of the Pure Concepts of Understanding
Book 2; Analytic of Principles
Ch.1: The Schematism of the Pure Concepts of Understanding
SCHEMATISM: 牟宗三: 規模性, 勞思光: 圖型論
"The schema is in itself always a product of imagination." [B179=A140]
Second Division: Transcendental Dialectic
先驗辯證論 [藍], 超越的辯證 [牟]
II. TRANSCENDENTAL DOCTRINE OF METHOD [Methodology]
先驗方法論 [藍], 超越的方法論 [牟], [李澤厚, 60]
1785: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals
1788: Critique of Practical Reason
1797: The Metaphysics of Morals
Doctrine of the Elements of Pure Practical Reason [Elementology]
Methodology of Pure Practical Reason [Methodology]
Pure Reason: How are a priori synthetic judgments possible?
Practical Reason: How is the Highest Good (Summum Bonum) practically possible?
Three Postulates: Freedom, Immortality of the Soul, God: “By a postulate of pure practical reason, I understand a theoretical propositions which is not as such demonstrable, but which is an inseparable corollary of an a priori unconditionally valid practical law.” [CPrR:127]
As Quantity: What appeal to other’s taste. “Beauty is what, without a concept, is liked universally." [Ak.220]
As Quality: What is disinterested. "Taste is the ability to judge an object, or a way of presenting it, by means of a liking or disliking devoid of all interest. The object of such a liking is called beautiful." [Ak.211]
As Relation: Purposiveness. "This harmony arouses a feeling of pleasure, then the object must thereupon be regarded as purposive for the reflective power of judgment." [Ak.190]
As Modality. Pleasure and Common Sense. "Beautiful is what we like in merely judging it." [Ak.306]
“Beauty is an object's form of purposiveness insofar as it is perceived in the object without the presentation of a purpose.” [Ak. 236]
Harmony of Faculties: “Now if in this comparison a given presentation unintentionally brings the imagination (the power of a priori intuitions) into harmony with the understanding (the power of concepts), and this harmony arouses a feeling of pleasure, then the object must thereupon be regarded as purposive for the reflective power of judgment. A judgment of this sort is an aesthetic judgment about the object's purposiveness.” [Ak.218]
Religion innerhalb Der Grenzen Der Blossen Vernunft
St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)
I do not seek to understand so that I may believe, but I believe so that I may understand; and what is more, I believe that 'unless I do believe I shall not understand." [Proslogion]
安瑟倫本體論: Anselm’s Ontological Argument
“The Fool has said in his heart, there is no God.” (Psalms 14:1, 53:1)
God as “Something-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought” exists in the mind of the fool.
Since “Something-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought” in existence is greater than that which is not in existence.
Therefore that “Something-than-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought” must exist in mind and reality.
Karl Barth, Anselm: Fides Quaerens Intellectum. (Faith in Search of Understanding) Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books, 1962.
“So far as I was concerned, after finishing this book I went straight into my Church Dogmatics and it has kept me occupied ever since and will continue to occupy me for the rest of my days." (Preface, p.11)
“Anselm’s theology is simple. That is the plain secret of his “proving.” Anselm is not in a position to treat Christian knowledge as an esoteric mystery, as a phenomenon that would have to shun the cold light of secular thinking. He credits his theology as such - without special adaptation for those outside - with being conclusive and convincing. [Barth, p.150]
“That Anselm’s Proof of the Existence of God has repeatedly been called the “Ontological” Proof of God, that commentators have refused to see that it is in a different book altogether from the well-known teaching of Descartes and Leibniz, that anyone could seriously think that it is even remotely affected by what Kant put forward against these doctrines - all that is so much nonsense on which no more words ought to be wasted.” [Barth, p.171]
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